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Serbo-Croatian (/ ˌ s ɜːr b oʊ k r oʊ ˈ eɪ ʃ ən / ()) – also called Serbo-Croat (/ ˌ s ɜːr b oʊ ˈ k r oʊ æ t /), Serbo-Croat-Bosnian (SCB), Bosnian-Croatian-Serbian (BCS), and Bosnian-Croatian-Montenegrin-Serbian (BCMS) – is a South Slavic language and the primary language of Serbia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Montenegro.It is a pluricentric language with four ...
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After Germany attacked the Soviet Union on 22 June , the USSR began to assist the military campaign of Communist partisans led by Tito ; and from the autumn of regular Red Army troops directly participated in battles in cooperation with the Partisans, especially in the territories of present-day Serbia. You can see what is happening in Tibet, how the separatists there are acting. Through our own language world we discover things about the wider world. East European Monographs. Serbian is a South Slavic language. People with whom I went to school and with whom I grew up spoke Bosnian and Serbian. Check it out. BETA, 17 February Serbo-Croatian is also a second language of many Slovenians and Macedonians , especially those born during the time of Yugoslavia. History of Russian State. It should also be noted that, in the pre-national era, Catholic religious orientation did not necessarily equate with Croat ethnic identity in Dalmatia. Download as PDF Printable version. Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia — Serbian is spoken by about 9. Serbian and Bosnian variants use both alphabets, while Croatian uses the Latin only. Please consider converting them to full citations to ensure the article remains verifiable and maintains a consistent citation style. Enciklopedija Jugoslavije, Vol. Fortunately, for each one of the four Slavic languages I have studied I found ample resources via the Internet, whether it be audiobooks and eBooks for Russian. In Serbia, the Serbian standard has an official status countrywide, while both Serbian and Croatian are official in the province of Vojvodina. Serbian Croatian Bosnian Montenegrin. Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia — Share 0. Multilateral relations. Meyendorff, John Accent diacritics are not used in the ordinary orthography, but only in the linguistic or language-learning literature e. The main reason is that Russian is the biggest, biggest in terms of number of speakers, and biggest in terms, rightly or wrongly, of the extent to which their writers and poets are celebrated around the world. Retrieved 6 July There are about 70 bilateral treaties, agreements and protocols signed in the past. Languages of Croatia. Subscription or participating institution membership required. Serbo-Croatian competed with the more established literary languages of Latin and Old Slavonic in the west and Persian and Arabic in the east. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Archived from the original PDF on 9 October Thanks a lot for your article! That would argue against Russian. The "National Defence" Narodna Odbrana organization was founded following the annexation, and sought to liberate Serb territories from Austro-Hungarian rule. However, the latter three tenses are typically used only in Shtokavian writing, and the time sequence of the exact future is more commonly formed through an alternative construction. Bloomington: Slavica Publishers. We only delete spam and comments with profanities. I am learning Persian at the same time. Russia produces lots of excellent audio books, which can be found online. This led Germany to declare war on Russia on 1 August, ultimately expanding the local conflict into a world war. International Politics. Arbejdspapirer ; vol. Charter of Bosnian Ban Kulin from the 12th century. Balkan Insight. Slovenian Proverbs and Sayings. The independence of Montenegro in was followed by polemics about Montenegrin as an independent language. What's Your Reaction? OSW Commentary.
See media help. I am learning Persian at the same time. Archived from the original on 15 March Slovenian Words Ending in -L. You are either not telling truth or you must have lived all your life in isolation from the civilization. Vucinich, W. Serbian Croatian Bosnian Montenegrin. However, the best is to search the web yourself. The Masculine Nouns — Exceptions. Serbian has a lot of words from Turkish and French. See Also: Minority languages of Montenegro. Innsbruck: Non Lieu. Retrieved 1 July Accents Ekavian Ijekavian Ikavian. For this reason it has some language features uncommon to other Slavic languages. I have found that once I started a Slavic language, whether Russian, Czech, Ukrainian or Polish, I discovered so much interesting content, often on the history of those countries, that I was just drawn more and more into the language and culture. Slavic languages—excluding Bulgarian and Macedonian—and Baltic languages have from 6 to 7 grammatical cases we wrote a little about Slovenian cases before. The Arabic alphabet had been used by Bosniaks ; Greek writing is out of use there, and Arabic and Glagolitic persisted so far partly in religious liturgies. No wonder, some people still confuse Slovakia and Slovenia, not just because of a similar name, but also because of the similar languages. Serbia also announced to later open a consulate-general in Yekaterinburg. Podhale Lach Silesian Cieszyn Silesian. In , numerous prominent writers, scientists, journalists, activists and other public figures from Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Montenegro and Serbia signed the Declaration on the Common Language , which states that in Croatia, Serbia, Bosnia-Herzegovina and Montenegro a common polycentric standard language is used, consisting of several standard varieties, such as German , English or Spanish. After Stalin's death, relations underwent normalisation heralded by the signing of the Belgrade declaration in June , which expressly rescinded Stalin's policies towards Yugoslavia. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press. The Part of Europe. The topic of language for writers from Dalmatia and Dubrovnik prior to the 19th century made a distinction only between speakers of Italian or Slavic, since those were the two main groups that inhabited Dalmatian city-states at that time. The Torlakian dialect is often added to the list, though sources usually note that it is a transitional dialect between Shtokavian and the Bulgaro-Macedonian dialects. Retrieved 18 July However, in modern Shtokavian the locative has almost merged into dative the only difference is based on accent in some cases , and the other cases can be shown declining; namely:. Redirected from Serbo-Croatian language. Fortunately, for each one of the four Slavic languages I have studied I found ample resources via the Internet, whether it be audiobooks and eBooks for Russian. The differences among the dialects can be illustrated on the example of Schleicher's fable. Macedonian is spoken in Macedonia, northern Greece, south-west Bulgaria, and in south-east Albania. Likely distribution of major dialects prior to the 16th-century migrations. London: Balkan Insight. And the sheep has no wool". Slovenian and Sanskrit Surprising Similarities It states that all variants belong to a common polycentric language. You can dream of visiting the enormous, fascinating and sometimes enigmatic Russia and of communicating with the people. The Part of Asia. From the 14th and the 15th centuries, both secular and religious songs at church festivals were composed in the vernacular. The ancestor of the South Slavic languages Old Church Slavonic and the ancestor of the East Slavic languages deviated from one another over a millennium ago, this means that the Slavic languages have had slightly more time to evolve and develop differences from one another than the Italic languages have. South Slavic historically formed a dialect continuum , i. In fact, at the time that Poland and Lithuania merged to form what was at that time the largest country in Europe, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, there were far more Ukrainians and Belarusians in the Commonwealth than Lithuanians. The total number of persons who declared their native language as either 'Bosnian', 'Croatian', 'Serbian', 'Montenegrin', or 'Serbo-Croatian' in countries of the region is about 16 million. Serbo-Croatian competed with the more established literary languages of Latin and Old Slavonic in the west and Persian and Arabic in the east. Which is used depends on the context and formality.
Note: a Kosovo independence disputed, see Kosovo declaration of independence. It is a pluricentric language with four  mutually intelligible standard varieties , namely Serbian , Croatian , Bosnian , and Montenegrin. South Slavic languages historically formed a continuum. The turbulent history of the area, particularly due to expansion of the Ottoman Empire , resulted in a patchwork of dialectal and religious differences. Due to population migrations, Shtokavian became the most widespread dialect in the western Balkans, intruding westwards into the area previously occupied by Chakavian and Kajkavian which further blend into Slovenian in the northwest. Bosniaks , Croats and Serbs differ in religion and were historically often part of different cultural circles, although a large part of the nations have lived side by side under foreign overlords. During that period, the language was referred to under a variety of names, such as "Slavic" in general or "Serbian", "Croatian" or "Bosnian" in particular. In a classicizing manner, it was also referred to as " Illyrian ". The process of linguistic standardization of Serbo-Croatian was originally initiated in the midth-century Vienna Literary Agreement by Croatian and Serbian writers and philologists, decades before a Yugoslav state was established. In the 20th century, Serbo-Croatian served as the official language of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia when it was called "Serbo-Croato-Slovenian" ,  and later as one of the official languages of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. The breakup of Yugoslavia affected language attitudes, so that social conceptions of the language separated along ethnic and political lines. Since the breakup of Yugoslavia, Bosnian has likewise been established as an official standard in Bosnia and Herzegovina, and there is an ongoing movement to codify a separate Montenegrin standard. Like other South Slavic languages, Serbo-Croatian has a simple phonology , with the common five-vowel system and twenty-five consonants. Its grammar evolved from Common Slavic , with complex inflection , preserving seven grammatical cases in nouns, pronouns, and adjectives. Verbs exhibit imperfective or perfective aspect , with a moderately complex tense system. Serbo-Croatian is a pro-drop language with flexible word order, subject—verb—object being the default. It can be written in Serbian Cyrillic or Gaj's Latin alphabet , whose thirty letters mutually map one-to-one, and the orthography is highly phonemic in all standards. Serbo-Croatian generally goes by the individual names Serbian, Croatian, Bosnian, and sometimes Montenegrin and Bunjevac. Throughout the history of the South Slavs, the vernacular, literary, and written languages e. Chakavian, Kajkavian, Shtokavian of the various regions and ethnicities developed and diverged independently. Prior to the 19th century, they were collectively called "Illyric", "Slavic", "Slavonian", "Bosnian", "Dalmatian", "Serbian" or "Croatian". Unofficially, Serbs and Croats typically called the language "Serbian" or "Croatian", respectively, without implying a distinction between the two,  and again in independent Bosnia and Herzegovina , "Bosnian", "Croatian", and "Serbian" were considered to be three names of a single official language. In 9th Century , Old Church Slavonic was adopted as the language of the liturgy in churches serving various Slavic nations. This language was gradually adapted to non-liturgical purposes and became known as the Croatian version of Old Slavonic. The two variants of the language, liturgical and non-liturgical, continued to be a part of the Glagolitic service as late as the middle of the 19th century. Serbo-Croatian competed with the more established literary languages of Latin and Old Slavonic in the west and Persian and Arabic in the east. Old Slavonic developed into the Serbo-Croatian variant of Church Slavonic between the 12th and 16th centuries. Lucy, Jurandvor on the Croatian island of Krk that contains text written mostly in Chakavian in the Croatian angular Glagolitic script. It is also important in the history of the nation as it mentions Zvonimir , the king of Croatia at the time. The luxurious and ornate representative texts of Serbo-Croatian Church Slavonic belong to the later era, when they coexisted with the Serbo-Croatian vernacular literature. The most notable are the " Missal of Duke Novak" from the Lika region in northwestern Croatia , "Evangel from Reims" , named after the town of its final destination , Hrvoje's Missal from Bosnia and Split in Dalmatia ,  and the first printed book in Serbo-Croatian, the Glagolitic Missale Romanum Glagolitice During the 13th century Serbo-Croatian vernacular texts began to appear, the most important among them being the "Istrian land survey" of and the " Vinodol Codex " of , both written in the Chakavian dialect. The Shtokavian dialect literature, based almost exclusively [ citation needed ] on Chakavian original texts of religious provenance missals , breviaries , prayer books appeared almost a century later. Both the language used in legal texts and that used in Glagolitic literature gradually came under the influence of the vernacular, which considerably affected its phonological , morphological , and lexical systems. From the 14th and the 15th centuries, both secular and religious songs at church festivals were composed in the vernacular. One of the earliest dictionaries, also in the Slavic languages as a whole, was the Bosnian—Turkish Dictionary of authored by Muhamed Hevaji Uskufi and was written in the Arebica script. Charter of Bosnian Ban Kulin from the 12th century. Vatican Croatian Prayer Book c. In Serbian and Croatian writers and linguists signed the Vienna Literary Agreement , declaring their intention to create a unified standard. Yet, in practice, the variants of the conceived common literary language served as different literary variants, chiefly differing in lexical inventory and stylistic devices. The common phrase describing this situation was that Serbo-Croatian or "Croatian or Serbian" was a single language. In , major Serbian and Croatian writers, linguists and literary critics, backed by Matica srpska and Matica hrvatska signed the Novi Sad Agreement , which in its first conclusion stated: "Serbs, Croats and Montenegrins share a single language with two equal variants that have developed around Zagreb western and Belgrade eastern ". The agreement insisted on the equal status of Cyrillic and Latin scripts, and of Ekavian and Ijekavian pronunciations. Moreover, Croatian linguists criticized those parts of the Dictionary for being unitaristic that were written by Croatian linguists. On occasion of the publication's 45th anniversary, the Croatian weekly journal Forum published the Declaration again in , accompanied by a critical analysis. West European scientists judge the Yugoslav language policy as an exemplary one:   although three-quarters of the population spoke one language, no single language was official on a federal level.