What is Frotteurism? Frotteurism, sometimes called groping, is an exclusively male type of paraphilia. Those who can be diagnosed with this disorder frequent crowded locations such as terminals, elevators, subways and buses and gain sexual gratification from rubbing their penises against the buttocks or other body parts of a fully clothed people.Estimated Reading Time: 8 mins
Apr 23, 2020 · Coprophilia is a paraphilia practically identical to urophilia, except that the object of pleasure is the stool and everything related to it. 12. Bestiality. Zoophiles fantasize about or even perform sex with animals. This type of sexual attraction is common to find in …Estimated Reading Time: 7 mins
Aug 28, 2020 · The word paraphilia derives from Greek; para means around or beside, and philia means love. The definition of paraphilia is any emotional disorder characterized by sexually arousing fantasies, urges, or behaviors that are recurrent, intense, occur over a period of at least 6 months, and cause significant distress or interfere with the sufferer’s work, social function, or other important ...Author: Roxanne Dryden-Edwards, MD
The urge to put one's penis in a light socket. A term coined by Donald Trump on his show "The Apprentice" even though bosses used it all the time before.Now anyone who watched five minutes of it thinks it's THE ABSOLUTE SHIT and uses it to say "YOU SUCK!" or "LOSER!"
Sep 02, 2013 · Introduction. There is a great deal of controversy concerning paraphilia, and defining what is normal versus deviant or disordered behavior. In part, this stems from the malleability of sexual norms across time and cultures, which creates problems for those defining and diagnosing paraphilia.Cited by: 23
Often, a paraphilia may be necessary for the person who has it to function sexually, despite the fact it may also be a source of significant distress. Paraphilias can lead to personal, social, and ...Estimated Reading Time: 8 mins
Mar 26, 2019 · A paraphilia is a condition in which a person's sexual arousal and gratification depend on fantasizing about and engaging in sexual behavior that is atypical and extreme. A paraphilia is ...
22 rows · Paraphilias are sexual interests in objects, situations, or individuals that are atypical. The …Specialty: Psychiatry
Paraphilia definition is - a pattern of recurring sexually arousing mental imagery or behavior that involves unusual and especially socially unacceptable sexual practices (such as sadism or pedophilia).
Exhibitionistic and voyeuristic behavior in a Swedish national population survey. J Sex Res. In order for a paraphilia to be diagnosed, the interest must be magnified to the point of psychological dependence, and must cause the individual significant distress or cause harm to a non-consenting party. Sex in Video Games. Unpacking the confusion around diagnosing paraphilia first requires one to know which diagnostic manual to use. He cautioned, however, that "not all these paraphilias have necessarily been seen in clinical setups. The American Journal of Psychiatry. Help Learn to edit Community portal Recent changes Upload file. Wakefield JC. Practical Guide to Paraphilia and Paraphilic Disorders, Increasingly, the evidence suggests that combining drug therapy with cognitive behavior therapy can be effective. Defining paraphilia in DSM do not disregard grammar. In Lipton, Benjamin ed. Those who can be diagnosed with this disorder frequent crowded locations such as terminals, elevators, subways and buses and gain sexual gratification from rubbing their penises against the buttocks or other body parts of a fully clothed people. Pharmacological treatments can help people control their sexual behaviors, but do not change the content of the paraphilia. There is a great deal of controversy concerning paraphilia, and defining what is normal versus deviant or disordered, given that this is to some degree dependent on cultural views of acceptability. Time Traveler for paraphilia The first known use of paraphilia was in See more words from the same year. Anything that is done with the object and generates sexual pleasure is considered a fetish, such as stealing it, masturbating with it, or simply watching it. A presentation by Perillo and Jeglic [ 24 ] reported that within 21 U. ISSN Treatment of Paraphilic Disorders. Most clinicians and researchers believe that paraphilic sexual interests cannot be altered,  although evidence is needed to support this. Reviewed by Psychology Today Staff A paraphilia is a condition in which a person's sexual arousal and gratification depend on fantasizing about and engaging in sexual behavior that is atypical and extreme. Ahlers et al. Specific inanimate objects . Although some paraphilias involve crimes, such as voyeurism and pedophilia, most of them are not harmful and are part of human sexual diversity. Authority control. Treatment approaches for paraphilias have included traditional psychoanalysis , hypnosis , and behavior therapy techniques. The following are the most common ones. Retrieved 14 March Asphyxia of oneself or others . History and Etymology for paraphilia New Latin. Arch Sex Behav. Touching an unsuspecting, non-consenting person with the hand . Learn More. Legal aspects of corrections management. Commentary: inventing diagnosis for civil commitment of rapists. For instance, having a partner "talk dirty" can be arousing for some people, but when talking dirty is the only way that sexual arousal or satisfaction can occur, it would be considered a paraphilia. Self-induced asphyxiation, sometimes to the point of near unconsciousness . In this article, we outline these issues and describe recent progress in diagnosing and treating paraphilias. Research has shown that paraphilias are rarely observed in women. Comstock , The paraphilia-related disorders: an investigation of the relevance of the concept in sexual murderers. Zoophiles fantasize about or even perform sex with animals. The image of one's self in the form of an infant. To differentiate between atypical sexual interest and a mental disorder, DSM-5 requires that, for diagnosis, people with such interests exhibit the following: i. Journal of Sex and Marital Therapy.
Paraphilia previously known as sexual perversion and sexual deviation  is the experience of intense sexual arousal to atypical objects, situations, fantasies, behaviors, or individuals. There is no scientific consensus for any precise border between unusual sexual interests and paraphilic ones. The number and taxonomy of paraphilia is under debate; one source lists as many as types of paraphilia. Many terms have been used to describe atypical sexual interests, and there remains debate regarding technical accuracy and perceptions of stigma. Sexologist John Money popularized the term paraphilia as a non- pejorative designation for unusual sexual interests. Coinage of the term paraphilia paraphilie has been credited to Friedrich Salomon Krauss in , and it entered the English language in , in reference to Krauss by urologist William J. In the late 19th century, psychologists and psychiatrists started to categorize various paraphilias as they wanted a more descriptive system than the legal and religious constructs of sodomy  and perversion. Homosexuality , now widely accepted to be a normal variant of human sexuality, was at one time discussed as a sexual deviation. By the midth century, mental health practitioners began formalizing "deviant sexuality" classifications into categories. Originally coded as x63, homosexuality was the top of the classification list Code Martin Kafka writes, "Sexual disorders once considered paraphilias e. A literature study by clinical psychologist James Cantor , when comparing homosexuality with paraphilias, found that both share "the features of onset and course both homosexuality and paraphilia being life-long , but they appear to differ on sex ratio, fraternal birth order , handedness , IQ and cognitive profile , and neuroanatomy ". The research then concluded that the data seemed to suggest paraphilias and homosexuality as two distinct categories, but regarded the conclusion as "quite tentative" given the current limited understanding of paraphilias. The causes of paraphilias in people are unclear, but some research points to a possible prenatal neurodevelopmental correlation. A study analyzing the sexual fantasies of heterosexual men by using the Wilson Sex Fantasy Questionnaire exam determined that males with a pronounced degree of fetish interest had a greater number of older brothers, a high 2D:4D digit ratio which would indicate excessive prenatal estrogen exposure , and an elevated probability of being left-handed , suggesting that disturbed hemispheric brain lateralization may play a role in deviant attractions. Behavioral explanations propose that paraphilias are conditioned early in life, during an experience that pairs the paraphilic stimulus with intense sexual arousal. There is scientific and political controversy regarding the continued inclusion of sex-related diagnoses such as the paraphilias in the DSM, due to the stigma of being classified as a mental illness. Some groups, seeking greater understanding and acceptance of sexual diversity , have lobbied for changes to the legal and medical status of unusual sexual interests and practices. Charles Allen Moser, a physician and advocate for sexual minorities, has argued that the diagnoses should be eliminated from diagnostic manuals. Albert Eulenburg noted a commonality across the paraphilias, using the terminology of his time, "All the forms of sexual perversion They are The clinical literature contains reports of many paraphilias, only some of which receive their own entries in the diagnostic taxonomies of the American Psychiatric Association or the World Health Organization. Consensual adult activities and adult entertainment involving sexual roleplay , novel, superficial, or trivial aspects of sexual fetishism , or incorporating the use of sex toys are not necessarily paraphilic. Clinicians distinguish between optional, preferred and exclusive paraphilias,  though the terminology is not completely standardized. An "optional" paraphilia is an alternative route to sexual arousal. In preferred paraphilias, a person prefers the paraphilia to conventional sexual activities , but also engages in conventional sexual activities. The literature includes single-case studies of exceedingly rare and idiosyncratic paraphilias. These include an adolescent male who had a strong fetishistic interest in the exhaust pipes of cars, a young man with a similar interest in a specific type of car, and a man who had a paraphilic interest in sneezing both his own and the sneezing of others. In American psychiatry, prior to the publication of the DSM-I, paraphilias were classified as cases of " psychopathic personality with pathologic sexuality". The DSM-I included sexual deviation as a personality disorder of sociopathic subtype. The only diagnostic guidance was that sexual deviation should have been "reserved for deviant sexuality which [was] not symptomatic of more extensive syndromes, such as schizophrenic or obsessional reactions". The specifics of the disorder were to be provided by the clinician as a "supplementary term" to the sexual deviation diagnosis; there were no restrictions in the DSM-I on what this supplementary term could be. The DSM-II continued to use the term sexual deviations , but no longer ascribed them under personality disorders, but rather alongside them in a broad category titled "personality disorders and certain other nonpsychotic mental disorders". The types of sexual deviations listed in the DSM-II were: sexual orientation disturbance homosexuality , fetishism, pedophilia, transvestitism sic , exhibitionism , voyeurism , sadism , masochism , and "other sexual deviation". No definition or examples were provided for "other sexual deviation", but the general category of sexual deviation was meant to describe the sexual preference of individuals that was "directed primarily toward objects other than people of opposite sex, toward sexual acts not usually associated with coitus , or toward coitus performed under bizarre circumstances, as in necrophilia , pedophilia, sexual sadism, and fetishism. The DSM-III-R renamed the broad category to sexual disorders , renamed atypical paraphilia to paraphilia NOS not otherwise specified , renamed transvestism as transvestic fetishism , added frotteurism , and moved zoophilia to the NOS category. It also provided seven nonexhaustive examples of NOS paraphilias, which besides zoophilia included exhibitionism , necrophilia, partialism , coprophilia , klismaphilia , and urophilia. The DSM-IV retained the sexual disorders classification for paraphilias, but added an even broader category, "sexual and gender identity disorders ," which includes them. The DSM-IV-TR describes paraphilias as "recurrent, intense sexually arousing fantasies, sexual urges or behaviors generally involving nonhuman objects, the suffering or humiliation of oneself or one's partner, or children or other nonconsenting persons that occur over a period of six months" criterion A , which "cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning" criterion B. DSM-IV-TR names eight specific paraphilic disorders exhibitionism , fetishism , frotteurism , pedophilia , sexual masochism , sexual sadism , voyeurism , and transvestic fetishism , plus a residual category, paraphilia—not otherwise specified. Some paraphilias may interfere with the capacity for sexual activity with consenting adult partners. The DSM-5 adds a distinction between paraphilias and paraphilic disorders , stating that paraphilias do not require or justify psychiatric treatment in themselves, and defining paraphilic disorder as "a paraphilia that is currently causing distress or impairment to the individual or a paraphilia whose satisfaction has entailed personal harm, or risk of harm, to others". The DSM-5 Paraphilias Subworkgroup reached a "consensus that paraphilias are not ipso facto psychiatric disorders", and proposed "that the DSM-V make a distinction between paraphilias and paraphilic disorders. In this conception, having a paraphilia would be a necessary but not a sufficient condition for having a paraphilic disorder. In that version, for example, a man cannot be classified as a transvestite—however much he cross-dresses and however sexually exciting that is to him—unless he is unhappy about this activity or impaired by it. This change in viewpoint would be reflected in the diagnostic criteria sets by the addition of the word 'Disorder' to all the paraphilias. Bioethics professor Alice Dreger interpreted these changes as "a subtle way of saying sexual kinks are basically okay — so okay, the sub-work group doesn't actually bother to define paraphilia. But a paraphilic disorder is defined: that's when an atypical sexual interest causes distress or impairment to the individual or harm to others. Charles Allen Moser stated that this change is not really substantive, as the DSM-IV already acknowledged a difference between paraphilias and non-pathological but unusual sexual interests, a distinction that is virtually identical to what was being proposed for DSM-5, and it is a distinction that, in practice, has often been ignored. The DSM-5 acknowledges that many dozens of paraphilias exist, but only has specific listings for eight that are forensically important and relatively common.
This raises concerns as to whether such a category should be included at all for psychiatric diagnosis [ 2 ], and further needs to be considered with criminal and legal proceedings in mind. Help Learn to edit Community portal Recent changes Upload file. These objects can be used in masturbation or become a part of sexual intercourse such as requiring a sexual partner to wear the item. As with other psychological disorders, people diagnosed with a paraphilia are not in control of their thoughts or their behavior. Inflicting pain on animals, or seeing animals in pain . Hendricks , and exhibitionism Kansas v. Aggress Violent Behav. The definitions under paraphilia within the DSM have been highly debated and highly controversial [ 22 ], and, given the lack of change to definitions and diagnostic criteria in the real sense, this would seem set to continue. J Am Acad Psychiatry Law. A diagnosis of all non-criminal paraphilias requires that they are present for at least six months and cause clinically important distress, or impair work, or cause problems with social or personal functioning [ 6 ]. Behavioral learning models suggest that a child who is the victim or observer of inappropriate sexual behaviors may learn to imitate that behavior, and is later reinforced for it. Wearing clothes associated with the opposite sex; also known as transvestism . It is more common in women. In the case of urophilia, the object of desire is urine, either by ingesting it or being wet with it golden rain. He also questions whether surgically augmented breasts are considered phenotypically normal, and proposes that if non-consensual acts imply paraphilic behaviour then there is confusion between a criminal act and a mental disorder. Get Word of the Day daily email! Cambridge, Massachusetts: Academic Press. Laura Warholic. Research suggests that cognitive-behavioral models are effective in treating paraphiliacs. To have seen a naked person and to have enjoyed it but unintentionally would not be considered paraphilic behavior. This paraphilia implies a crime against the intimacy of others. Frances A, First MB. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Actual sexual contact is not the goal of voyeurism; gratification is achieved through masturbation, either at the time of the act or later when thinking about it. Worry is driven by mood, not logic. The causes of paraphilias in people are unclear, but some research points to a possible prenatal neurodevelopmental correlation. Most of the following names for paraphilias, constructed in the nineteenth and especially twentieth centuries from Greek and Latin roots see List of medical roots, suffixes and prefixes , are used in medical contexts only. Paraphilias include sexual behaviors society may view as distasteful, unusual, or abnormal. When considering paraphilic coercive disorder, Knight [ 27 ] suggested that little empirical justification existed for its proposal as a distinct syndrome in DSM Medical condition. Sex crimes and paraphilia. The DSM-5 adds a distinction between paraphilias and paraphilic disorders , stating that paraphilias do not require or justify psychiatric treatment in themselves, and defining paraphilic disorder as "a paraphilia that is currently causing distress or impairment to the individual or a paraphilia whose satisfaction has entailed personal harm, or risk of harm, to others". Editorial AyM. Defining paraphilia in DSM do not disregard grammar. You may not use this work for commercial purposes. Psychoanalysts theorize that an individual with a paraphilia is repeating or reverting to a sexual habit that arose early in life. Fantagraphics Books. Asphyxia of oneself or others . Assisted aversive conditioning is similar to covert sensitization except the negative event is made real, most likely in the form of a foul odor pumped in the air by the therapist. Although such commitment is not technically further punishment, this can bring about concerns for civil liberties and procedural justice. Namespaces Article Talk. Retrieved 10 February In terms of more standardized studies, most data are based on criminal reports or studies using clinical populations referred for legal reasons, rather than for self-help in the general population. NY: Praeger. The most common are pedophilia sexual focus on children , exhibitionism exposure of genitals to strangers , voyeurism observing private activities of unaware victims and frotteurism touching or rubbing against a nonconsenting person. J Psychol Human Sex. Sexualwissenschaft, Vol. The DSM diagnostic criteria for transvestic fetishism. Help Learn to edit Community portal Recent changes Upload file. This means that following completion of a prison sentence for sexually motivated crime, ex-prisoners can be incarcerated by proxy in non-punitive institutions. PMID A transvestic sexual partner .
Reviewed by Psychology Today Staff. A paraphilia is a condition in which a person's sexual arousal and gratification depend on fantasizing about and engaging in sexual behavior that is atypical and extreme. A paraphilia is considered a disorder when it causes distress or threatens to harm someone else. A paraphilia can revolve around a particular object children, animals, underwear or a particular behavior inflicting pain, exposing oneself but is distinguished by a preoccupation with the object or behavior to the point of being dependent on that object or behavior for sexual gratification. Most paraphilias are far more common in men than in women. The focus of a paraphilia is usually very specific and unchanging. Paraphilias include sexual behaviors society may view as distasteful, unusual, or abnormal. The most common are pedophilia sexual focus on children , exhibitionism exposure of genitals to strangers , voyeurism observing private activities of unaware victims and frotteurism touching or rubbing against a nonconsenting person. Fetishism use of inanimate objects , sexual masochism being humiliated or forced to suffer , sexual sadism inflicting humiliation or suffering and transvestic disorder sexually arousing cross-dressing are much less common. There is also a category of paraphilias—known as Other Specified Paraphilic Disorders—which encompasses behaviors not covered by the already named diagnoses, such as those involving dead people, urine, feces, enemas, or obscene phone calls. Some of the behaviors associated with paraphilias are illegal; individuals under treatment for paraphilic disorders often encounter legal complications surrounding their behaviors. Although many paraphilias seem foreign or extreme, they are easier to understand if one thinks of them in terms of behaviors that, in less extreme versions, are quite common. For instance, having a partner "talk dirty" can be arousing for some people, but when talking dirty is the only way that sexual arousal or satisfaction can occur, it would be considered a paraphilia. Others want to be bitten or spanked, or enjoy watching their partner perform certain acts, or become aroused by viewing a nude person or watching sexually explicit videos. But these sexual interests—if carried out by consenting adults—do not, in themselves, indicate a paraphilia. In order for a paraphilia to be diagnosed, the interest must be magnified to the point of psychological dependence, and must cause the individual significant distress or cause harm to a non-consenting party. It is unclear what causes paraphilic disorders to develop. Psychoanalysts theorize that an individual with a paraphilia is repeating or reverting to a sexual habit that arose early in life. Behaviorists suggest that paraphilias begin through a process of conditioning: Nonsexual objects can become sexually arousing if they are repeatedly associated with pleasurable sexual activity. Or particular sexual acts such as peeping, exhibiting, bestiality that provide especially intense erotic pleasure can lead the person to prefer that behavior. In some cases there seems to be a predisposing factor, such as difficulty forming person-to-person relationships. Behavioral learning models suggest that a child who is the victim or observer of inappropriate sexual behaviors may learn to imitate that behavior, and is later reinforced for it. Compensation models suggest that these individuals are deprived of normal social sexual contacts and thus seek gratification through less socially acceptable means. Physiological models focus on the relationship between hormones , behavior, and the central nervous system , with a particular interest in the role of aggression and male sexual hormones. Treatment approaches for paraphilias have included traditional psychoanalysis , hypnosis , and behavior therapy techniques. More recently, a class of drugs called antiandrogens that drastically lower testosterone levels temporarily have been used in conjunction with these forms of treatment. The drug lowers sex drive in males and can reduce the frequency of mental imagery of sexually arousing scenes. This allows for concentration on counseling without a strong distraction from the paraphiliac urges. Increasingly, the evidence suggests that combining drug therapy with cognitive behavior therapy can be effective. The level of an individual's sex drive is not consistently related to paraphiliac behavior. Additionally, high levels of circulating testosterone do not predispose a male to paraphilias. That said, hormones such as medroxyprogesterone acetate Depo-Provera and cyproterone acetate decrease the level of circulating testosterone, thus reducing sex drive and aggression. These hormones can result in reduction of frequency of erections, sexual fantasies , and initiation of sexual behaviors, including masturbation and intercourse. Hormones are typically used in tandem with behavioral and cognitive treatments. Antidepressants such as fluoxetine Prozac have also successfully decreased sex drive but have not effectively targeted sexual fantasies. Research suggests that cognitive-behavioral models are effective in treating paraphiliacs. Aversive conditioning, for example, involves using negative stimuli to reduce or eliminate a behavior. Covert sensitization entails the patient relaxing, visualizing scenes of deviant behavior followed by a negative event, such as getting his penis stuck in the zipper of his pants. Assisted aversive conditioning is similar to covert sensitization except the negative event is made real, most likely in the form of a foul odor pumped in the air by the therapist. The goal is for the patient to associate the deviant behavior with the foul odor and take measures to avoid the odor by avoiding said behavior. Vicarious sensitization entails showing videotapes of deviant behaviors and their consequences, such as victims describing desired revenge or perhaps even watching surgical castrations. There are also positive conditioning approaches that might center on social skills training and alternate behaviors the patient might take that are more appropriate. Reconditioning techniques center on providing immediate feedback to the patient so that the behavior will be changed right away. For example, a person might be connected to a plethysmographic biofeedback machine that is hooked up to a light. The person is taught to keep the light within a specific range of color while the person is exposed to sexually stimulating material. Masturbation training might focus on separating the pleasure inherent in masturbation and climax from the deviant behavior. Cognitive therapies described include restructuring cognitive distortions and empathy training. Restructuring cognitive distortions involves correcting erroneous beliefs by the patient, which may lead to errors in behavior such as seeing a victim and constructing erroneous logic that the victim deserves to be party to the deviant act. Empathy training involves helping the offender take on the perspective of the victim and better identify with them, in order to understand the harm that has been done. Worry is driven by mood, not logic. Anxiety holds your deepest yearnings.